Among the diseases of the musculoskeletal system with degenerative-dystrophic origin, degenerative knee disease occupies the leading position.
Gonarthrosis or arthritis of the knee joint is a disease that is accompanied by a slow destruction of the cartilage tissue of the joint with the participation of the entire joint in the pathological process, including ligaments, synovial fluid, bone under cartilage andOther elements of the joint.
Under the influence of various factors, such as infectious diseases (colds, flu, typhus fever, tuberculosis, syphilis, tonsillitis and others), trauma, functional congestionof the joint (e. g. in athletes, hard workers, ballet dancers) There is a nutritional (nutritional) violation of the cartilage tissue of the knee joint, resulting in thinner cartilage anddestroyed, sometimes completely gone.
Who is at risk? First of all, degenerative knee osteoarthritis has the risk of "finding" women over the age of forties, they get this disease twice as often as men of half of humanity. What's more, the risk increases in women who tend to be overweight or obese.
But in general, gonarthrosis is a disease of the elderly. And there is a simple explanation for this. As you know, cartilage tissue is about 70-80% water, so it absorbs well. In addition, when young, the cells that "restore" chondrocytes are active. With age, the amount of moisture begins to decrease, and as a result, joint buffering capacity deteriorates, cartilage becomes dry, fragile and cracked, and existing chondrocytes do not have time to repair the damage. In many ways, this explains the appearance of the knee joint gonarthrosis.
Cause of the disease
High risk factors are overweight, physical inactivity, chronic joint injury or systemic joint injury, alcohol abuse, chronic stress, anterior knee diseasehere or present, such as:
- knee arthritis,
- sprain, partial or complete rupture of the ligament,
- fracture in the femur or tibia,
- metabolic disorders, such as gout and several other medical conditions.
Usually it is not possible to identify any specific cause of knee gonarthrosis, in this case they talk about a combined cause, i. e. gonarthrosis is the result of multiple diseases of the sameat.
In addition, this disease, due to its appearance, is usually divided into two forms: primary and secondary.
Primary joint diseases due to age and related factors, such as:
- Professional trend,
- Varicose veins of the lower extremities.
The cause of a secondary fibroid may be a previous knee injury (fracture, ligament rupture), known as post-traumatic knee joint disease. The same reason could be a previous infectious disease or knee arthritis.
The signs of osteoarthritis do not appear overnight, the progression of the disease is gradual and usually takes months, even years. The swelling is permanent and increases with physical activity - walking, running, going down or climbing stairs, etc. v. - More than ever. Another characteristic symptom of this disease is the presence of crepitus in the joint, which can be a crack or scratching sound in the knee.
Very frequent manifestations of gonarthrosis are:
- local rise in temperature (hot joint to the touch) or in general,
- present joint swelling,
- increase volume,
- is difficult to move, The
- deformation of the joint is followed by the limb curvature.
As the disease progresses, when the cartilage tissue is completely destroyed, the body has no choice but to initiate self-defense. This is manifested by the proliferation of bone tissue on the bone that makes the joint in the form of a "spine" (bone tumor), a degenerative phenomenon of the knee occurs. Exudates appear in the cavities of the joints.
Depending on the size of the osteogenesis cells and the degree of deformation, several degrees of gonarthrosis are distinguished:
- Grade 1 gonadal fibroids.The patient feels stiff and mild pain in the joint in the morning or when sitting or standing for long periods of time. There is no joint deformation at this stage, the mobility is fully retained. X-rays reveal a small bone cell.
- Acute 2 gonadal fibroidsThere is a painful sensation not only in the morning, but during prolonged exertion, the joint becomes deformed, the joint surfaces dilate, joint volume also increases, flexing is difficult, there is a sense of scratching when performing movements. X-ray showed clear image of bones, joint cavity unchanged.
- Grade 3 gonadal fibroidsThe symptoms are similar to grade 2, the only difference is that the symptoms are becoming more pronounced. The pain is permanent, does not relieve even with rest and sleep. Function of the joint is almost completely lost, the patient cannot bend the legs, straighten. The result is a limp, only able to move with crutches or outside assistance. There is a pronounced deformation of the knee joint. On the radiograph, a slight narrow space of the joint cavity is determined.
- There is also a fourth stage, in which the joint is completely immobilized with additional distortion. On the x-ray, it is determined that the sclerosis of the bones under the cartilage and joint cavity narrows significantly.
Treatment of arthritis of the knee
To get a good result from your treatment, you should seek the help of a qualified rheumatologist and if the doctor is not there go to the therapist, as they knowhow to cure dry knee joint. In any case, you should not try to treat yourself, this can only aggravate a situation that did not get better. Before starting treatment, it is extremely important to have an accurate diagnosis, as an accurate diagnosis is the key to successful treatment.
Treating gonarthrosis is a fairly long process and depends on a number of factors (the type of joint disease, the cause of the joint disease, the severity of the disease). Complex treatment includes pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapy, and in some cases, surgical treatment is indicated.
Medicines for osteoarthritis are mainly intended to reduce the main symptoms of the disease, such as:
- Arthritis and surrounding tissues.
In addition to relieving symptoms of the disease, medications are also used to:
- joint tissue repair,
- improves nutrition and circulation,
- enhances the defenses of the body,
- eliminates allergic reactions.
Many non-addictive pain relievers are used to relieve pain symptoms; in rare cases, narcotic pain relievers are prescribed for a short period of time. Most often, drugs are used from the group of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. They have combined anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects.
Chondroprotectors are used to restore cartilage tissue and improve joint mobility. The drug stimulates the activity of cartilage cells - chondrocytes, and helps them repair tissue. Inserting the input protector in the joint provides good effect. In recent years, a new, effective product based on hyaluronic acid has emerged. For its action, this drug is called a "fake liquid". Once injected into the diseased joint, the drug forms a protective film on the damaged cartilage and gradually restores the joint's normal lubricating properties.
Muscle relaxants are used to reduce muscle spasm, besides having a relaxing effect, they have a positive effect on blood circulation in the affected joint.
Manual and physiotherapy are widely used from non-medicinal gonarthrosis treatments. The most important are magnetotherapy, acupuncture, electrophoresis and massage, mechanical stretching (joint elongation), and other methods. Recently, methods such as laser therapy and cryotherapy (liquid nitrogen exposure) have been introduced to treat arthritis. Along with physical therapy, the knee osteoarthritis therapy exercises also have good results. Lfk is the use of various physical exercises for therapeutic purposes.
Osteoarthritis treatment for knee
When the disease first starts, physical activity on the diseased joint should be minimized. You should not run, jump, lift weights, go briskly, or squat. Osteoarthritis of the knee exercises are performed only after a course of treatment, under the supervision of a doctor.
It is important to choose exercises that strengthen the muscles and ligaments of the affected knee joint, but at the same time do not result in overactive joint movement. That is, the exercises should have minimal dynamic activity. Ligament and sheath stretching exercises are very helpful. The rules are the same, the exercises are done gently, without using force.
When doing any exercise, it's important to follow a few rules:
- It's too painful not to exercise
- If the exercise is painful, you should change it to something more gentle.
The degenerative knee massage is helpful in restoring the function of the knee joint. At the point of contact, blood vessels dilate, blood circulation is improved and metabolism is accelerated. The massage process improves lymphatic flow, and thus, helps to eliminate any residual inflammation. Massage strengthens the muscular system, increases the flow of oxygen in the body, improves gas metabolism, normalizes their tone and increases flexibility.
Degenerative Knee Diet
Recently, medical experts have found that there is no direct relationship between the incidence of gonarthrosis and nutrition. However, an undeniable fact is that the development of joint disease is greatly influenced by the presence of excess weight in a person. If the exact cause is being overweight, then the diet for osteoarthritis of the right knee is aimed at gradually reducing body weight. This will require a change in the diet and dietary changes. Food should be low in calories, fried foods and foods high in fat should be excluded from the diet. Eat plenty of vegetables, fruits and fluids.
Prevention of osteoarthritis of the knee
To keep your bones and joints healthy, you need regular exercise and sports, but don't get too caught up in this, to avoid overloading your joints. Swimming is most effective and reduces stress on the joints. If you are involved in professional sports, you should use joint protection. It is very helpful to alternate physical activity with rest, so you should not stay still for long periods of time.
Adhering to all these simple rules with a healthy lifestyle and proper nutrition will not let degenerative knee deterioration ruin anyone's life.