Back pain: causes, treatment

Almost everyone during a lifetime, at least for a long part, back pain, and the third, the adults these unpleasant feelings are repeated on a regular basis. The urgency of the problem is illustrated, at least the fact that the treatment of pain every year spent three times more money than in the treatment of cancer patients.

The duration of the episode of pain is usually 2 weeks, but many patients, residual symptoms persist for months or even longer. There

a part of these patients are diagnosed with herniated disks, spinal canal disease, disease, kidney, ovary, and other internal organs, and sometimes malignant tumors, or metastases.

The article briefly describes the main causes of pain in the distinguishing characteristics, to help people to understand the health problems and it's time to consult a doctor.

The likely causes of back pain:

  • lesions of the spine, the ligaments and muscles;
  • denial is the root, other diseases of the spinal cord;
  • diseases of the internal organs;
  • connective tissue disease;
  • depression, mental disorders.

There is evidence that back pain often occurs in the low physical activity, obesity, Smoking, heavy physical work, stay in an uncomfortable position, prolonged action of vibration, a sharp twist of the trunk.

Diseases of the spine, the ligaments, joints

bol

Most people with complaints of back pain occur because the lesions of the intervertebral discs, joints between processes, as well as the bone of the vertebral body. With age the disks between the vertebrae lose water, decreasing the thickness. As a result, the increased mobility of the individual spinal segments, which irritate the pain receptors in the inter-vertebral joints. It should be said that often even people with a pronounced age changes of the spine pain is not. Often a herniated disc with pain randomly.

In recent years, increasingly greater importance for the development of persistent back pain are given the so-called syndrome of the joints, the "little face" — this is a private form of osteoarthritis affecting the articular apparatus of the spine.

The pain in this syndrome may be unilateral, bilateral, localized in the spine near, most often in the lumbar region, extending into the thigh. The pain often appears in the morning, but during the day again-increased load after the evening. First, it seems usually after a sharp downward turn, or the tribe. The pain is worse standing or extension of the decreased to the sitting or lying down, the light, bending it, use the support. Syndrome joints, "small face" is often a recurrence.

Often causes back pain lesions of the spine, the following conditions:

  • spondylolisthesis – displacement of vertebrae relative to each other;
  • spinal stenosis;
  • ankylosing spondylitis (Bechterew's disease);
  • osteoporosis, fractures of the vertebral body (often the elderly, especially women);
  • a large disc herniation (more than 5 mm);
  • disease of the cervical spine.

Lack of physical activity during the working day, the distinctive feature of work in the office. I miss the movement, long stay in an uncomfortable situation, to provoke unnecessary stress on the joints, cause pain, discomfort, but a gradual destruction of the cartilage. Therefore, office workers are advised to regularly do the exercises, they need resources to protect, regenerate cartilage.

More rare but dangerous cause of the pain syndrome a tumor, most commonly the metastases to the spine. The risk increases if the patient has any cancer (often lung cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer), weight loss, fever, duration of complaints for more than a month, the age of 50 years. Metastases frequently affect the thoracic spine.

The other reason for the back pain related to cancer is multiple myeloma. Rarely, but there are benign, primary malignant tumors of the spine, for example, a benign tumor produced from bone tissue, Ewing's sarcoma.

Ankylosing spondylitis should be suspected in the young patient age, morning stiffness of the spine and large joints, improvement after warm-up. The pain often appears in the gluteal region. Typically the profit in the evening, so sick in the morning can't sleep due to discomfort.

Back pain appears, the other symptoms can be observed in the following diseases:

  • patients with psoriatic arthritis;

  • rheumatic disease;
  • juvenile rheumatoid arthritis;
  • Crohn's disease, Whipple's, ulcerative colitis;
  • listeriosis, salmonellosis.

An important element of the overall management of the administration of drugs, the effectiveness, which aims to preserve and improve the condition of joints, cartilage. Injection provides maximum bioavailability as well as rapid action of the drug, which helps prevent the progression of destruction of the cartilage, reduces inflammation, and stimulates the synthesis of hyaluronic acid. Since the rapid effect not to long courses of the drug a total of 20 injections 2 times a year. Supplement for the treatment of pain allows to reduce the dose or the duration of use of nsaids.

Osteomyelitis of the spine or ankylosing have to assume prolonged fever, intravenous drug, or drugs, the former an infectious disease or trauma, administration of immunosuppressants. Inflammatory diseases of the spine is of a specific nature from syphilis, tuberculosis.

Defined by so-called indicators of serious problems requiring a thorough examination of the patient:

  • suddenly, for the first time it turns out pain;
  • very severe pain;
  • there is no correlation in the pain the position of the body;
  • the pain is stronger at night than during the day;
  • patient's age younger than 20 or older than 55 years;
  • recent back injury;
  • the probability of infection (inflammation of the genitourinary tract, taking immunosuppressive drugs, acquired immune deficiency syndrome);
  • moved to cancer;
  • unexplained weight loss, fever;
  • weakness;
  • incontinence of urine or the stool;
  • gait disorders;
  • progressive neurological diseases.

Lose muscle

spina

Lose back muscles can be secondary: the diseases of the spine, the muscles tense, which is a "defense system" that holds the spinal column, but the constant tension, cramps or the cause of the pain. Often a muscle spasm occurs the first time, for example, for a long time to stay in an uncomfortable situation, or increased anxiety. This pain syndrome is a relatively benign, of course, she's responding well to the medication.

Certain systemic diseases of the muscles present in the back pain. These are the following:

  • the rheumatic polymyalgia;
  • fibromyalgia.

The Fibromyalgia is a relatively common disease, frequently occurring in middle-aged women. It is characterized by diffuse pain in the muscles of the body, weakness, sleep disturbances, changes in skin sensation, anxiety, unstable chair.

Pathology of the spinal cord, or roots

Compression of the spinal roots emerging through the holes between the vertebrae, a more rare, because the pain in all 10 patients. However, this pain syndrome stronger, longer, and the duration of treatment approximately 2 months.

Compression (compression) of the root of the cause:

  • hernia of the intervertebral disc;
  • hypertrophy of the yellow ligament;
  • the bone growth;
  • the narrowing of the spinal canal (e.g. due to injury).

The image of the destruction of the roots (radiculopathy): the sharp "shooting" pain, disturbing sensation in the area of innervation of the spine, decreased reflexes, weakness of the corresponding muscles. If the compression of the spine is demonstrated, the modern research methods, as well as the medication is ineffective, sometimes resort to surgery.

Diseases of the internal organs

Back pain occurs not only in diseases of the spine or the spinal cord, but also accompanying many diseases of the internal organs:

b
  • heart disease (myocardial infarction, stable, unstable angina, infective endocarditis, aortic aneurysm);
  • lung disease (pulmonary embolism, pneumothorax, pleurisy);
  • pathology of the esophagus, stomach (peptic ulcer, esophageal spasm, esophagitis);
  • inflammatory processes in the kidney, liver, pancreas, gall bladder.

Usually distinguish these diseases allows two things:

  • suddenly a very strong pain in the back;
  • signs of damage to the affected authorities (shortness of breath, rales in the lungs, pain in palpation of the abdomen, etc.).

The pain, especially resulting from a sudden, is not accompanied by signs of sickness in the spine is always necessary to register an electrocardiogram to exclude acute myocardial infarction. In particular, this is the typical localization of pain in ischemic heart disease typical of the elderly.

Psychogenic diseases

The transition, the pain, the chronic form contribute to the social and behavioural factors:

  • financial difficulties;
  • emotional stress;
  • trust the inevitable pain, because the connection to the daily work;
  • thoughts about a possible serious illness, disability;
  • depression;
  • addiction to other people;
  • the strategy to avoid disease in which the patient is not taken to diagnose and treat the condition.

To what doctor to address

So the causes of back pain are varied. Often they are associated with diseases of the spine, spinal cord, if they occur, you should consult a neurologist. In addition, you may need to consult other specialists: neurosurgeon, oncologist, gastroenterologist, cardiologist, surgeon, psychologist. To choose the right professional, you first contact the therapist after the initial examination to establish a provisional diagnosis.

24.07.2018