Why back pain: causes, types of pain, treatment

A number of painful back and very different, from time to time, this happens with most adults. Someone pain is not a sign of anything serious, only need to do some simple exercises to pass. Someone becomes a symptom of a tumor, infection or degenerative changes in the spine.

If you want to understand what causes pain, how it happens and what to do with it, not so difficult.

Causes of back pain

causes of back pain

Why back pain? Causes of back pain are varied. Describes the easiest way of breaking into groups.

  • Temporary. Syndrome occurs in healthy people for a short period of time, as a result of exposure to adverse circumstances, the abuse of physical activity, prolonged standing in one position. Not dangerous, just get rid of it.
  • Degenerative. That appears as a result of changes in the spine: the vertebra has shifted, problems with the intervertebral disks that pinched a nerve. Not dangerous, but unpleasant and has a long period of time.
  • Infectious. It becomes a symptom of the inflammatory process, which takes place in the spine or surrounding muscles. Dangerous, because the infection affects the entire body negatively and can lead to death of the patient.
  • Radiating. Becomes the symptom of the disease of internal organs. Of the spine not affected, the pain goes only to the back.
  • Other. This group together reasons, which are not included in the first four.

Understanding why back pain should be treated by each group separately.

Temporary pain

This is a small group, but with them has a chance to face all the people. The reasons are three:

  • Awkward body position. Back pain is a natural reaction to the muscle tension and improper curvature of the spine. The pain of a nagging, unpleasant. Typical for people who work sitting several hours, creating a comfortable work space, with a long stay in one position.
  • Muscle strain. If an untrained person begins to carry heavy loads, will be included in the active work or go to the gym, the reaction of its muscles and ligaments is a natural the next day, he will suffer from pain. Her character-drawing is enhanced when you try to move. If you continue to strain, which may bring about muscle inflammation.
  • Pregnancy. In order for the baby to exit the birth canal, already in the first months of pregnancy the woman's body starts producing the hormone that bonds a soft. At the same time, the longer the duration, the greater the child's weight and load of the spine results nagging persistent localized pain in the lower back or sacrum.

Back pain of this kind are themselves the muscles are restored, a child is born, the position of the body changes and everything comes back to normal with little input from the patient.

All you can do to relieve their condition, providing you time to rest.

Degenerative pain

degenerative pain

Such an error is more serious than temporary, and do not by themselves pass. These include:

  • Pain in the low back. The reason for degenerative changes in the structure of the intervertebral discs. They lose their elasticity and become flat, causing the vertebral joints become less mobile, crumble, change shape. Vary, depending on which of the affected area of the spine: cervical, thoracic, lumbar. Neck accompanied by pain, which is put on the shoulder, a painful headache, dizziness, hearing impairment. Chest on chest, often so many that there are problems with breathing. Lumbar radiates to the legs, often accompanied by lameness and disorders of the pelvic organs.
  • The intervertebral hernia. Hernia develops when the intervertebral disc bulges between the vertebrae. At first the pain is dull, nagging, increases when the disk presses the vertebrae, when the patient cough, weight lifting, long sitting on one place. In the future, increases, begins to in the limbs, become apparent. Accompanied by weakness in the muscles, rapid changes of posture for the worse, problems with the sensitivity of the extremities. If left untreated, can lead to a paralysis of everything below the disk, which pinch.
  • Shift the bobbin. Develops either due to congenital abnormalities or degenerative changes in the structure of the spine. Often localized in the lumbar region, pain is constant, nagging, the comments in the buttocks and legs.
  • Is a herniated disc. It becomes a logical continuation of the development of a herniated disc. A pinch of disk bulges, so that it actually falls from his seat. The disease is characterized by acute pain the patient freezes in one place and trying very hard not to move and not worse.
  • Sciatica. Occurs due to entrapment of spinal roots. Is manifested by pain, then tingling, numbness, reduced sensitivity to the complete atrophy of the plot, which links the nervous system provides a certain sport. Because of sciatica is caused lumbago, pain syndrome in which the patient suddenly shoots back and he freezes in a bent position, unable to straighten up.
  • The development of osteoporosis. Occurs either due to age or due to hormonal disorders in the body. Of bone tissue due to diseases, becomes less dense and loses its normal structure. Pain in the long stay in static posture, or when the weather changes. They are accompanied by a change of posture, cramps in the legs and extreme fragility of the bones of any weak shock, which can lead to breakage.
  • Bechterew's Disease. The disease, which leads to weakening of the small joints of the spine, connecting individual vertebrae. Characterized by a constant pain that increases at night and becomes easier in the morning.

Degenerative changes are chronic and are treated primarily by lifestyle changes and manual therapy. Symptomatic treatment is only administered at the time of relapse, surgery is indicated only in some cases of osteochondrosis, for example, does not help.


Specific to inflammation of the spine not so much for the most part the syndrome is due to infectious diseases, which can in principle be stored anywhere. Most often the two diseases:

  • TB. The pulmonary form is most common, but it also happens that affects the spine. Pain, painful, treatment is long and difficult, often the person who remains on the results invalid.
  • Osteomyelitis. The impact on the bones, periosteum, bone marrow. Work hard, with the formation of pus. Nagging pain, which is accompanied by the formation of fistulas, festering wounds on the body.

And tuberculosis, osteomyelitis accompanied by fever, headaches, muscle weakness, fatigue, and often nausea, vomiting, diarrhea all these are classic symptoms of the infection. Treatment they need immediately, because the earlier stage, so that will be more effective.


irradiiruet pain

Diseases of internal organs can also cause pain. This pain is not increased and is not reduced by changing the position of the body, and is also accompanied by clear symptoms that point to specific body.

  • The kidneys. The most common variant, often in inflammatory diseases or with gems. Girdle pain at the level of the waist, stronger back, not up. Accompanied by frequent urination, intense yellow color of urine or blood in it, fever. Sometimes found in the form of renal colic-sharp pain on one side of the back.
  • The digestive tract. Ulcer or gastritis pain may be expressed in the back. The nature of the pain, occurring either in the evening, when a man departs to sleep, or when hungry, or immediately after a meal. Accompanied by the classic symptoms of indigestion and intestinal bloating, increased gas, nausea, constipation or diarrhea. Sometimes heartburn and blood in the stool black, if the patient has stomach ulcers, black, if the ulcers in the intestine.
  • Gynecology. Women are also pain, in nature, is located just above the waist. Accompanied by a disruption of the menstrual cycle, secretions of unusual color and texture, with unpleasant odour, problems during sex, sometimes a high temperature.
  • Lungs. Stabbing pain in the thoracic spine, increasing on the inhale, on the exhalation weakens. Accompanied by shortness of breath, shallow and rapid breathing, symptoms of oxygen starvation, fatigue, dizziness, fainting.
  • Of the heart. A stabbing pain, also in the chest, may be granted in the shoulder and arm on the left side. Accompanied by arrhythmias or tachycardia, shortness of breath, dizziness.

In this case, pain syndromes, easy contact with the internal organs, whereas in the regular back pain, additional symptoms were observed.


This group includes such diseases as malignant tumor and back injuries, which were not included in the previous one. They are characterized by different symptoms:

  • The Tumor. Cancer in the spine is found only rarely, then, refers to either bone marrow or bone tissue. Often the back is riddled with metastases, and then, in addition to the primary symptoms of the patient, who also suffers from severe back pain.
  • Injury. Drop, shock, and other damage to leave a bruise, sometimes broken ribs or even the spine. And symptoms, and treatments, which are very dependent on the nature of the injury, in which one spindle is a young man. Most often, the consequences of which range from easy to wait for the bruise to go to the hospital and a long wait until the bones grow together.

In any case, these causes are serious and require a visit to the doctor, diagnosis and treatment.

Types of pain

Back pain is often different to conclude what's the problem, precisely because of its nature. Happen:

  • strong pulling, is characterized by degenerative changes, or, if accompanied by symptoms of heart or lung disease;
  • acute occurs when the sciatica, prolapsed vertebral, renal colic and infection, often accompanied by fever;
  • nagging often caused by muscle tension (and then the muscles in the palpation the firm, reduced), but this may be evidence of degenerative changes in the acute stage, if the back pain permanently;
  • award of back pain symptoms are accompanied by symptoms from other organs, pain does not change the intensity or, depending on the position of the body, or, depending on the time of day.

If back pain, pain tells you about what is affected. Sometimes you don't need a visit to the doctor and you can understand yourself.

What to do for back pain?

what to do for back pain

There are some cases, when going to the doctor do not have:

  • if the disease is chronic and the patient is not the time;
  • if the pain is caused by muscular overstrain;
  • if the patient is just sitting in an awkward position and can clearly associate with the pain.

In such cases, it is enough that in the place that hurts warm (you can wrap with a scarf), to avoid any unpleasant situations and to drink vitamins help the body to recover faster.

Immediately appointment with the doctor or to call home, you need to:

  • the pain came after the injury;
  • pain accompanied by a loss of sensitivity of the back or limbs;
  • the pain lasts for several days or even enhanced;
  • it is accompanied by fever and other symptoms of the infection;
  • the pain does not disappear, even if you lie down and relax;
  • pain accompanied by additional symptoms of tachycardia, shortness of breath, problems with urination, constipation or diarrhea.

The doctor should also visit if the pain in the low back hurt, the child or the older person, older than fifty years.


Diagnostics is carried out sequentially after the consultation where the doctor asks the patient about the symptoms and perform the palpation, a variety of tests to understand what could cause pain in the back.

Among them:

  • General blood and urine gives an idea about the status of the body and also for the detection of infectious contamination, if any;
  • x-rays, which is suitable for the detection of tumors and tuberculosis, gives an idea of the shape of the spine and its deformation;
  • Ultrasound and MRI are used for obtaining the most detailed picture of the spine.

After receiving the test results, the doctor may need to conclude that was the cause for this condition, and if you want to assign more specialized tests. A biopsy, which will show which processes are in the tissues, neurological tests, showing the depth of injury, infectious crops, identification of the causative agent.

As a result, the range decreased so that the cause for this pathology, it becomes clear, and you can continue processing.