Types of joint diseases: symptoms and methods of treatment

Arthritis is a chronic joint disease, accompanied by pathological changes in the hyalinic cartilage, and subsequently in neighboring tissues, the bursary and synovial membrane.

Lesions are dystrophic and degenerative, leading to structural changes in the joint tissues, loss of their function. According to the same statistics, 12% of the total population on the planet is susceptible to arthritis. Between 62% and 65% of all episodes occur in people over the age of 60.

30-35% of joint injuries with this pathology occur in patients 40-60 years old. And about 3% are young people in the age group 20-40.

What is this?

Simply put, joint disease is a chronic disease in which progressive degenerative-dystrophic changes develop in the joint due to a metabolic disorder. This is the most common joint disease, diagnosed in 6-7% of the population. With age, the incidence increases significantly.

Usually, in osteoarthritis, the pathological process involves the small joints of the hands (10 times more often in women than in men), the big toe, disc joints of the chest and spineneck, as well as knee and hip joints. Osteoarthritis of the knee and hip joints occupies the leading position in severity of clinical manifestations and negative impacts on quality of life.

Arthritis is characterized by a complex lesion of the joint and auxiliary apparatus:

  • meningitis - inflammatory changes in the cartilage of the joint;
  • Osteitis
  • - involvement of underlying bone structures in the pathological process;
  • bursitis - inflammation of the inner lining of the bursa;
  • bursitis - damage to the peristaltic sacs;
  • reactive inflammation of the soft tissues (muscles, subcutaneous tissue, ligaments) located in the projection of the associated joint (periarthritis).

The disease is diagnosed in 2% of people under 45, 30% - from 45 to 64 years and 65-85% - at the age of 65 and over. Moderate and large arthritis has the greatest clinical significance due to its negative impact on the patient's living standards and working capacity.

Types of joint diseases

Depending on the cause of the pathological process within the joint, primary joint disease is distinguished, secondary and idiopathic.

Primitive develops as an independent, secondary, trauma or infection and the cause of the idiopathic form is unknown. In addition to the classification of the disease, depending on the cause of the pathological process, joint disease is distinguished by the location of destructive changes:

  1. Gonarthrosis is the most common type of medical condition, characterized by damage to the knee joint. Usually, gonarthrosis is found in overweight people, with chronic metabolic diseases in the body, and poor immunity. Osteoarthritis of the knee progresses in a long time and gradually leads to complete loss of motor function.
  2. Osteoarthritis of the shoulder - the main cause of degeneration in this area is due to birth defects during development of the shoulder joint or due to excessive stress on the area, such as when wearingHeavy luggage on the shoulder.
  3. Arthritis of the ankle - the main reasons that lead to the development of degenerative processes in the ankle joint are trauma, sprains, sprains and fractures. In some cases, the development of a pathological process can cause an autoimmune disease - rheumatoid arthritis. Ankle joint disease affects dancers, women wearing high heels, athletes.
  4. Arthritis
  5. No fibrosis or degeneration of the cervical spine - caused by neck injury, progressive bone necrosis, obesity, sedentary lifestyle. There is a risk that people work with computers in offices. In addition to the severe pain in the neck, the patient also presents with dizziness, impaired consciousness, memory impairment and fatigue. These symptoms are caused by compression of the vertebrae, through which nutrients and oxygen enter the brain.
  6. Coxarthrosis or arthritis of the hip joint - the main cause of appearance is age-related changes in the tissues of the joint. People over 45 years of age are at risk.
  7. Osteoarthritis of the finger - develops for the same reason as degenerative spondylosis.
  8. Polyarthrosis is characterized by multiple joint damage with progressive degenerative processes in it, while the pathological process involves ligaments, muscles, and tissue around the joint.
  9. Degenerative spondylolisthesis - tissues of the spine, particularly the lumbar region, can be damaged. Women are at risk at the onset of menopause, as degenerative spondylosis progresses on the basis of a deficiency of female sex hormones.

Causes of joint disease

Two reasons contribute to joint disease - stress and lack of adequate nutrition, vitamins and minerals for tissue repair. Each person's joints carry a load. For athletes and dancers, during physical activity, the greater the load on the legs, means that the bones and joints wear out faster and require high nutrition. With a quiet lifestyle, the apparatus aids in slower wear and tear, but also requires periodic tissue renewal.

Therefore, the main condition for the destruction and deformation of the joint is malnutrition, difficult to digest useful components, which often occur with metabolic disorders.

Let's list factors contributing to joint wear and metabolic disorder:

  • Muscle weakness and abnormal load of joints. Weakness of one or more muscles increases the load on the joint and is not uniformly distributed in the joint. In addition, the muscle load improperly forms flat feet, scoliosis, so with these "harmful disadvantage" diseases with age, the cartilage tissue is worn out, dry joints appear.

    The chance of matching increases with strength.

    If the daily load exceeds the capacity of the skeletal tissues, a microbiota is formed in them. At traumatic sites, thick layers appear, develop over time and deform the joint;

  • Metabolic disorders (gastrointestinal disease - bile stasis, digestive disorders, gastritis, cholecystitis, pancreatitis, metabolic disease - diabetes);
  • Psychiatric - Psychological causes of joint disease confirm that a negative emotional state also becomes the cause of the disease. Stress forms muscle spasm, constant tension disrupts the nutrition of all tissues (internal organs, bones, joints);
  • Heredity (inherited metabolic patterns and possible disorders, predisposition to muscle weakness or improper formation of skeletal machinery, poor digestion - are the basis for development ofjoint disease in old age).

Osteoarthritis is a disease of worn out joints, losing a substantial supply of minerals and their ability to resist stress and destruction. Therefore, with age, the tendency to get the disease increases. After 70 years, joint disease is diagnosed in every second pensioner. Since the maximum load falls on the leg (a person moves - walking, standing, running, jumping), this is the first sign of joint disease to form.

Mechanism of disease progression

When whatever reason for OA occurs, pathological processes begin to develop in it. The mechanism of their progression is not fully understood, but the main stages of formal medicine are known.

At an early stage, there is structural deterioration of the cartilage tissue and abnormal changes in synovial fluid. All of this happens due to a metabolic disorder, in which the tissues of the joints do not get the required number of components or are deprived of some of them.

Furthermore, the elasticity of collagen fibers and the flexibility of cartilage are lost, due to the lack of nutrients in the body, hyaluronic acid does not have time to produce, creating softness and flexibility. of the structural composition of collagen fibers. The cartilage gradually dries up, becoming brittle and chapped. The synovial fluid gradually drains and then disappears completely.

Coarse and solid bone growth is formed on the cartilage tissue. At the same time, the deformation of other tissues of the joints develops, their pathology degenerates, dystrophy and loss of physiological activity. For patients, these changes mean pain, limping, stiffness in the joints.

Symptoms of joint disease

Atypical acute clinical picture for arthritis, progressive, progressive joint changes, manifested by progressive symptoms:

  • pain;
  • intermittent scratching of the affected joint;
  • joint deformity appears and worsens as the disease progresses;
  • hardness;
  • restricted mobility (reduced volume of active and passive movements in the affected joint)

Pain in joint disease is of a transient dull nature, occurring with movement, amid high stress, at the end of the day (which may be so intense that the patient cannot sleep). The persistent, non-mechanical nature of pain for joint disease is nonspecific and indicates the presence of active inflammation (sub-cartilage, synovial membrane, ligament or periarticular muscle).

Most patients note the presence of so-called pain that begins in the morning after waking up or after a long period of inactivity and occurs during physical activity. Many patients identify this condition as a need for “joint development” or “joint removal”.

Arthritis is characterized by morning stiffness, clearly localized and of a short-term nature (no more than 30 minutes), sometimes the patient feels a "jelly sensation" in the joint. There may be a wedge, stiff feel.

Joint pain with dry joints

With the development of reactive bursitis, the main symptoms of joint disease are associated by:

  • soreness and local increase in temperature, as determined by palpation of the affected joint;
  • persistent pain;
  • enlargement of the joint, swelling of soft tissue;
  • gradually decreases the range of motion.

The stage and degree of osteoarthritis

During the course of the disease, medicine distinguishes between three stages, which differ in disease signs, severity of damage and the site. At the same time, the difference in all three stages involves tissue types undergoing pathological changes.

  1. The first stage of the development of dry arthritis is the early stage of the disease. It is characterized by mild cartilage tissue damage and loss of physiological function in collagen fibers. At the same time, at the first stage, minor morphological disturbances of bone tissue and structural changes in synovial fluid are noted. Cartilage and joints have many cracks, the patient has a slight pain at the pathological site.
  2. Second degree - the development of arthritis with increased dynamism. This stage is characterized by the appearance of stable, crippling pain. There are notable morphological and dystrophic changes in the cartilage; during the diagnosis, the growth of bone tissue is revealed. Bone formation - bone growth visible when visually examining the site of the injury. At the same time, degenerative change in the synovial sac takes place, leading to its structural deterioration. The disease in this stage may progress more severe and often. The pain gradually became constant.
  3. Third degree - positive progression. At this stage, the synovial fluid is almost absent due to degeneration, the bone tissue rubbing against each other. Almost no joint mobility, the pain is more and more pronounced. Cartilage is also absent due to degenerative and atrophic changes. Treatment of third degree joints is considered inappropriate.

In addition to the three levels of pathological development, there is one final stage - irreversible destruction of all tissues of the joint. During this period, it is not possible to only conduct effective therapy but also to relieve pain.

The inflammatory process usually begins at the second level of the lesion, in rare cases, in the absence of medical intervention - in the early stages. Subsequently, its prevention becomes more and more difficult and this can lead to secondary pathologies, the development of pathogenic microflora at the local site of the disease.

In order to rule out severe consequences, treatment should be started from the very first level, and at the same time intensive therapies are applied. In the terminal stage, which involves the complete destruction of cartilage tissue, only one technique is allowed to make the patient relieve pain and immobilize the joint - orthopedic surgery with full or partial replacement of thepart of the joint.

The aftermath

Consequences of untimely treatment and progressive deterioration of the joint with complications such as:

  • ;
  • irreversible deformation;
  • has a vertebral hernia;
  • stiffness or stiffness;
  • degrades quality and standard of living.

Chronic progression, in addition to these complications, is accompanied by severe and frequent pain, complete destruction of the structural components of the joint, discomfort, inability to perform physical activities andplay sports.


Diagnosis of joint disease is based on assessment of pathological data, characteristic manifestations of the disease, results of instrumental research methods. The indicated changes in general and biochemical blood tests are not typical for arthritis, they appear only when the development of an active inflammatory process.

The main tool method to diagnose joint disease is X-ray; In cases where the diagnosis is not clear, it is recommended to take pictures with a computer or with magnetic resonance.

Arthritis of the knee and hip occupies the top position in terms of severity of clinical manifestations and negative impact on quality of life.

Additional diagnostic methods:

  • local arthroscopy;
  • ultrasound (assess the thickness of articular cartilage, synovial fluid, synovial condition, presence of fluid);
  • scans (assess the bone tissue condition of the ends of the joints).

How to treat arthritis?

It is better to treat dry arthritis in the early stages, the treatment itself must be hereditary and complex. Its essence lies in the elimination of the causes that contribute to the development of this disease, it is also necessary to eliminate inflammatory changes and restore previously lost functions.

The treatment of arthritis is based on a few basic principles:

  1. Joint oxygenation, also known as endothelial oxygen therapy.
  2. Drug treatment.
  3. Unwanted bottlenecks, as well as metaepiphysis decompression.
  4. Sustainable diet.
  5. Injured joints must be under undue stress. If possible, it should be kept to a minimum during treatment.
  6. Follow the established orthopedic protocol.
  7. Physical therapy exercise.
  8. Take a physical therapy course, including acupuncture and electrotherapy, shock wave and laser.
  9. Treatment of the nursing home. To do this, it is necessary to undergo a course of treatment in specialized resorts once a year as recommended by the doctor.

Preparations for the treatment of arthritis

Drug therapy is carried out during the exacerbation of joint disease selected by a specialist. Unacceptable self-medication due to possible side effects (eg, negative effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on the gastric mucosa).

Therapy includes the following drugs:

  1. Anti-inflammatory drug. By starting full-scale joint therapy, you can slow the course of the disease and significantly improve your quality of life. It is worth seeing more detail on some of the treatment points. In particular, drug therapy is included in an early stage - this is the elimination of pain, as well as elimination of inflammatory processes that occur in the joint. For this, all doctors use nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Experienced physicians do not recommend oral administration, as these drugs cause great irritation of the stomach wall. So, depending on the drug chosen, use either intravenously or intramuscularly. Sometimes, as an auxiliary agent, NSAIDs are used in the form of an ointment, but their absorption is extremely low, so a significant effect cannot be achieved.
  2. Endocrine corticosteroids. When joint disease is in advanced stage, it is recommended to use hormone corticosteroids. They are injected into the joint. Outside, you can use a special plaster, ointment or alcohol, made on the basis of hot pepper.
  3. Chondroprotectors aimed at restoring cartilage and improving the quality composition of synovial fluid would not be superfluous. The course lasts quite a long time, until there is improvement. However, if the expected effect does not appear within six months of taking the drug, the drug should be canceled. Also in the joints, together with the protective drug chondroprotectors, it is recommended to use drugs produced on the basis of hyaluronic acid. They contribute to the formation of cell membranes responsible for joint cartilage formation.


To relieve pain, reduce inflammation, improve microcirculation, and eliminate muscle spasm, a patient with joint disease is referred to physiotherapy:

  • In an exacerbation stage. Prescribe laser therapy, magnetotherapy and ultraviolet radiation,
  • Remission. Electrophoresis and imaging are displayed.

In addition, thermal, sulfide, radon, and bathing processes are used. To strengthen muscles, electrical stimulation is performed. Gentle massage can also be used during remission.


If the listed exposure methods are ineffective, in the event of complications, they must resort to surgery to treat the joint disease:

  1. Reduced blood pressure and prolonged tumor blockade (reduced tumor pressure in the affected area);
  2. Osteopathic surgery;
  3. Endogenous drugs.

In the early stages of the disease, mechanical disinfection, laser or cold plasma is used (flatten the surface of the damaged cartilage, remove the uninhabitable areas). This method of pain relief is effective, but only temporarily - 2-3 years.

Folk remedies

Nowadays, most people do not want to take drugs or injections. Therefore, they pose the question - how to cure arthritis with the help of folk remedies? For the most part, such funds are aimed at enhancing the body's nuance, improving blood circulation, reducing pain and increasing immunity.

The traditional medicine formulas used to treat this disease:

  1. The egg solution is made from fresh egg yolks, mixed with turpentine and apple cider vinegar in a 1: 1: 1 ratio. The liquid must be thoroughly mixed and rubbed onto the affected joint overnight. Then you need to wrap everything with a wool scarf. Should be rubbed in 1 month 2-3 times / week.
  2. Buy elecampane root from the pharmacy. As a rule, it is packaged in packages of 50 grams. To prepare the tincture, you will need half a pack of roots and 150 ml of high quality vodka. The ingredients are mixed well, put in a dark bottle and infused for 12 days. It is recommended to rub it before bed and if possible in the morning.
  3. Knee joint
  4. The use of boiled oatmeal also gives good results. Take three to four tablespoons of oatmeal, add boiling water, and cook over low heat for five to seven minutes. The amount of water used to cook the porridge is thick, so let it cool and apply overnight. Use only freshly boiled flakes. Yesterday's porridge was not good for a compression.
  5. Birch leaves, nettle leaves and calendula inflorescences were taken into equal parts. As a result, you should get two tablespoons. We put the crushed portion in a thermos, filled with a liter of boiling water, and let it sit overnight. Starting the next morning, you need to drink half a glass of water 4-5 times a day. The course of taking this prescription is two to three months.

Laurel cigarettes, horseradish, garlic and rye seeds are also considered effective. Folk remedies for arthritis are most effective if combined with drugs.

Nutrition for joint disease

The basic principles of nutrition for arthritis have been shortened to the following points:

  1. Avoid overeating at night to avoid arthritis attacks.
  2. Splits.
  3. Regularly control weight, to avoid weight gain,Vitamins for joint diseasesand thus, adds stress to sore joints.
  4. When the illness does not get worse, walk after eating.
  5. The menu should be well balanced with the participation of the attending physician.

There are absolutely no complaints about fish dishes - you can eat a variety of dishes naturally in reasonable quantities.

  1. Don't forget to get your vitamins regularly from foods. For patients with arthritis, vitamin B vitamins are particularly relevant
  2. Jelly meat plays an important role in the treatment of joint disease. Such food would be a real storehouse of trace elements for sore joints. The most important ingredient in aspic is natural collagen
  3. Vitamin B helps in hemoglobin production. It can be "obtained" by eating bananas, nuts, cabbage and potatoes. It's worth taking away with herbs and legumes. They will be a good source of folic acid. Liver, mushrooms, dairy products, as well as eggs will help. They are rich in riboflavin.

Follow the treatment regimen prescribed by the doctor, the disease should go into remission and damaged tissues begin to regenerate.


Prevention of arthritis starts with a healthy diet. Every effort should be made to reduce salt intake as well as food that can disrupt your metabolism. These include legumes, fatty meats and alcohol. The diet consists of cabbage, green vegetables and fish.

To prevent arthritis, need to participate in gymnastics classes, warm up. If possible, it is better to walk a few kilometers. It is important to monitor your weight and prevent weight gain, as this will put extra strain on sore joints. Do not take pills for the purpose of losing weight, as they can disrupt the metabolism in the body.


Favorable life prospects. The advantages of social and occupational prognosis depend on the timeliness of diagnosis and initiation of treatment; it decreases when the decision on surgical treatment is delayed, if necessary.