Arthritis is a chronic joint disease, accompanied by pathological changes in the hyalinic cartilage, and subsequently in neighboring tissues, the bursary and synovial membrane.
Lesions are dystrophic and degenerative, leading to structural changes in the joint tissues, loss of their function. According to the same statistics, 12% of the total population on the planet is susceptible to arthritis. Between 62% and 65% of all episodes occur in people over the age of 60.
30-35% of joint injuries with this pathology occur in patients 40-60 years old. And about 3% are young people in the age group 20-40.
Simply put, joint disease is a chronic disease in which progressive degenerative-dystrophic changes develop in the joint due to a metabolic disorder. This is the most common joint disease, diagnosed in 6-7% of the population. With age, the incidence increases significantly.
Usually, in osteoarthritis, the pathological process involves the small joints of the hands (10 times more often in women than in men), the big toe, disc joints of the chest and spineneck, as well as knee and hip joints. Osteoarthritis of the knee and hip joints occupies the leading position in severity of clinical manifestations and negative impacts on quality of life.
Arthritis is characterized by a complex lesion of the joint and auxiliary apparatus:
The disease is diagnosed in 2% of people under 45, 30% - from 45 to 64 years and 65-85% - at the age of 65 and over. Moderate and large arthritis has the greatest clinical significance due to its negative impact on the patient's living standards and working capacity.
Depending on the cause of the pathological process within the joint, primary joint disease is distinguished, secondary and idiopathic.
Primitive develops as an independent, secondary, trauma or infection and the cause of the idiopathic form is unknown. In addition to the classification of the disease, depending on the cause of the pathological process, joint disease is distinguished by the location of destructive changes:
Two reasons contribute to joint disease - stress and lack of adequate nutrition, vitamins and minerals for tissue repair. Each person's joints carry a load. For athletes and dancers, during physical activity, the greater the load on the legs, means that the bones and joints wear out faster and require high nutrition. With a quiet lifestyle, the apparatus aids in slower wear and tear, but also requires periodic tissue renewal.
Therefore, the main condition for the destruction and deformation of the joint is malnutrition, difficult to digest useful components, which often occur with metabolic disorders.
Let's list factors contributing to joint wear and metabolic disorder:
The chance of matching increases with strength.
If the daily load exceeds the capacity of the skeletal tissues, a microbiota is formed in them. At traumatic sites, thick layers appear, develop over time and deform the joint;
Osteoarthritis is a disease of worn out joints, losing a substantial supply of minerals and their ability to resist stress and destruction. Therefore, with age, the tendency to get the disease increases. After 70 years, joint disease is diagnosed in every second pensioner. Since the maximum load falls on the leg (a person moves - walking, standing, running, jumping), this is the first sign of joint disease to form.
When whatever reason for OA occurs, pathological processes begin to develop in it. The mechanism of their progression is not fully understood, but the main stages of formal medicine are known.
At an early stage, there is structural deterioration of the cartilage tissue and abnormal changes in synovial fluid. All of this happens due to a metabolic disorder, in which the tissues of the joints do not get the required number of components or are deprived of some of them.
Furthermore, the elasticity of collagen fibers and the flexibility of cartilage are lost, due to the lack of nutrients in the body, hyaluronic acid does not have time to produce, creating softness and flexibility. of the structural composition of collagen fibers. The cartilage gradually dries up, becoming brittle and chapped. The synovial fluid gradually drains and then disappears completely.
Coarse and solid bone growth is formed on the cartilage tissue. At the same time, the deformation of other tissues of the joints develops, their pathology degenerates, dystrophy and loss of physiological activity. For patients, these changes mean pain, limping, stiffness in the joints.
Atypical acute clinical picture for arthritis, progressive, progressive joint changes, manifested by progressive symptoms:
Pain in joint disease is of a transient dull nature, occurring with movement, amid high stress, at the end of the day (which may be so intense that the patient cannot sleep). The persistent, non-mechanical nature of pain for joint disease is nonspecific and indicates the presence of active inflammation (sub-cartilage, synovial membrane, ligament or periarticular muscle).
Most patients note the presence of so-called pain that begins in the morning after waking up or after a long period of inactivity and occurs during physical activity. Many patients identify this condition as a need for “joint development” or “joint removal”.
Arthritis is characterized by morning stiffness, clearly localized and of a short-term nature (no more than 30 minutes), sometimes the patient feels a "jelly sensation" in the joint. There may be a wedge, stiff feel.
With the development of reactive bursitis, the main symptoms of joint disease are associated by:
During the course of the disease, medicine distinguishes between three stages, which differ in disease signs, severity of damage and the site. At the same time, the difference in all three stages involves tissue types undergoing pathological changes.
In addition to the three levels of pathological development, there is one final stage - irreversible destruction of all tissues of the joint. During this period, it is not possible to only conduct effective therapy but also to relieve pain.
The inflammatory process usually begins at the second level of the lesion, in rare cases, in the absence of medical intervention - in the early stages. Subsequently, its prevention becomes more and more difficult and this can lead to secondary pathologies, the development of pathogenic microflora at the local site of the disease.
In order to rule out severe consequences, treatment should be started from the very first level, and at the same time intensive therapies are applied. In the terminal stage, which involves the complete destruction of cartilage tissue, only one technique is allowed to make the patient relieve pain and immobilize the joint - orthopedic surgery with full or partial replacement of thepart of the joint.
Consequences of untimely treatment and progressive deterioration of the joint with complications such as:
Chronic progression, in addition to these complications, is accompanied by severe and frequent pain, complete destruction of the structural components of the joint, discomfort, inability to perform physical activities andplay sports.
Diagnosis of joint disease is based on assessment of pathological data, characteristic manifestations of the disease, results of instrumental research methods. The indicated changes in general and biochemical blood tests are not typical for arthritis, they appear only when the development of an active inflammatory process.
The main tool method to diagnose joint disease is X-ray; In cases where the diagnosis is not clear, it is recommended to take pictures with a computer or with magnetic resonance.
Arthritis of the knee and hip occupies the top position in terms of severity of clinical manifestations and negative impact on quality of life.
Additional diagnostic methods:
It is better to treat dry arthritis in the early stages, the treatment itself must be hereditary and complex. Its essence lies in the elimination of the causes that contribute to the development of this disease, it is also necessary to eliminate inflammatory changes and restore previously lost functions.
The treatment of arthritis is based on a few basic principles:
Drug therapy is carried out during the exacerbation of joint disease selected by a specialist. Unacceptable self-medication due to possible side effects (eg, negative effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on the gastric mucosa).
Therapy includes the following drugs:
To relieve pain, reduce inflammation, improve microcirculation, and eliminate muscle spasm, a patient with joint disease is referred to physiotherapy:
In addition, thermal, sulfide, radon, and bathing processes are used. To strengthen muscles, electrical stimulation is performed. Gentle massage can also be used during remission.
If the listed exposure methods are ineffective, in the event of complications, they must resort to surgery to treat the joint disease:
In the early stages of the disease, mechanical disinfection, laser or cold plasma is used (flatten the surface of the damaged cartilage, remove the uninhabitable areas). This method of pain relief is effective, but only temporarily - 2-3 years.
Nowadays, most people do not want to take drugs or injections. Therefore, they pose the question - how to cure arthritis with the help of folk remedies? For the most part, such funds are aimed at enhancing the body's nuance, improving blood circulation, reducing pain and increasing immunity.
The traditional medicine formulas used to treat this disease:
Laurel cigarettes, horseradish, garlic and rye seeds are also considered effective. Folk remedies for arthritis are most effective if combined with drugs.
The basic principles of nutrition for arthritis have been shortened to the following points:
There are absolutely no complaints about fish dishes - you can eat a variety of dishes naturally in reasonable quantities.
Follow the treatment regimen prescribed by the doctor, the disease should go into remission and damaged tissues begin to regenerate.
Prevention of arthritis starts with a healthy diet. Every effort should be made to reduce salt intake as well as food that can disrupt your metabolism. These include legumes, fatty meats and alcohol. The diet consists of cabbage, green vegetables and fish.
To prevent arthritis, need to participate in gymnastics classes, warm up. If possible, it is better to walk a few kilometers. It is important to monitor your weight and prevent weight gain, as this will put extra strain on sore joints. Do not take pills for the purpose of losing weight, as they can disrupt the metabolism in the body.
Favorable life prospects. The advantages of social and occupational prognosis depend on the timeliness of diagnosis and initiation of treatment; it decreases when the decision on surgical treatment is delayed, if necessary.